Index

What is the big bang?
When did the big bang happened?
Who is the father of big bang theory?
Inflation of Singularity
Birth of Matter
Birth of Forces
Birth of Light
Dark Matter
Dark Energy
Conclusion


What is the big bang?

Being a part of this universe, the intelligent minds have always shown curiosity to know the origin of the universe because the answer will lead to a better understanding of the laws of nature which can bring very high advancement in the field of science and technology.

The deeper knowledge of the universe will also solve the biggest dispute ever between the science and religions. That’s because scientific minds can’t accept the creation of the universe as told by different religions. These different stories are considered to be filled with the myths and deceits which are not factual. The modern world is driven by the science and science is driven by logic. We need to find a logical solution about the creation of the universe to use the knowledge for our advancement.

It doesn’t matter how much advanced our science is, it is still not able to figure out what triggered the big bang. It only accepts the illogical truth that Everything came from Nothing.

Wiki: If the known laws of physics are extrapolated beyond where they have been verified, there is a singularity.

How can this singularity bring up so much diversity and intelligence? Eight million seven hundred thousand is the latest estimated total number of species on Earth. Billions of stars, planets and galaxies.

I will drive you back to explore the very first moments of creation in a more understandable way.

When did the big bang happened?

Age of the universe is approximately 13.8 billion years old. NASA’s Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) project’s nine-year data release in 2012 estimated the age of the universe to be 13.772 billion years, with an uncertainty of plus or minus 59 million years.

Who is the father of the big bang theory?

Georges Lemaître

Lemaître was a pioneer in applying Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity to cosmology. The universal expansion was predicted from general relativity by Alexander Friedmann in 1922 and Georges Lemaître in 1927, well before Hubble made his 1929 analysis and observations, and it remains the cornerstone of the Big Bang science theory as developed by Friedmann, Lemaître, Robertson, and Walker.


Inflation of Singularity

In the beginning, there was nothing, not even the empty space. Time and space never existed before the big bang. There were no dimensions(x,y,z) or time(past, present and future). Suddenly there was an explosion, this was the birth of the universe. According to modern general relativity, the initial state of the universe, at the beginning of the Big Bang, was a singularity.

The primordial gases (hydrogen and helium) were born and the temperature of the universe was too hot, almost infinite. Formation of matter particles was not possible as the temperature never allowed them to consolidate.

Universe cooled down rapidly to allow the formation of subatomic particles. Though simple atomic nuclei formed within the first three minutes after the Big Bang, thousands of years passed before the first electrically neutral atoms formed.

Until 1960s scientists believed that the universe was not born, it always ever existing. It did not have a beginning or end but according to Einstein’s theory of relativity, the universe was still expanding in all directions which means that it started expanding from a single source. That’s how the concept of singularity was born for science. A point where all known laws of physics break down.


Birth of Matter

The space created by the big bang was too dense and hot. As it began cooling matter started forming under the great gravitational pull. The matter started taking the shape of the billions of spiral galaxies and stars.

We all are made up of the matter. Everything in the universe is made up of the matter. The matter is defined as anything which occupies space and has mass, it is visible and can be traced under spatial coordinates.

All the matter existing in the universe is the residue of the big bang. The residue, because at the time of big bang matter was not alone. Yes, the matter was born with the antimatter.

In particle physics, matter is composed of particles and antimatter is composed of antiparticles, which have the same mass as particles of ordinary matter but opposite charges.(1)

After big bang particles collided with the antiparticles and annihilated in the form of energy according to Einstein’s famous equation E = mc2

Our existence (residual matter) proves that there must have been more matter than the antimatter. As far as physicists can tell, it’s only because, in the end, there was one extra matter particle for every billion matter-antimatter pairs. Physicists are working hard to explain this asymmetry.(2) But that’s how it is, the complicated universe designed itself to bring us forth to enjoy its beauty peacefully. This phenomenon is studied under baryon asymmetry.

Nearly all matter that may be encountered or experienced in everyday life is baryonic matter, which includes atoms of any sort.

The very existence of baryons is also a significant issue in cosmology because it is assumed that the Big Bang produced a state with equal amounts of baryons and antibaryons. The process by which baryons came to outnumber their antiparticles is called baryogenesis.(3)


Birth of Forces

There are four fundamental forces gravitational, electromagnetic, strong nuclear, and weak nuclear. Approximately 13.79 billion years ago all the forces were unified (read: Unified Field Theory). These are the forces which intacts our physical world.

Breakdown of forces-

  1. The strong nuclear interaction is responsible for the binding of atomic nuclei.
  2. The weak nuclear interaction also acts on the nucleus, mediating radioactive decay.
  3. Electrical and magnetic (Electromagnetic) fields tend to cancel each other out when large collections of objects are considered.
  4. Over the largest distances (on the scale of planets and galaxies), gravity tends to be the dominant force.

Gravity is the weakest of all fundamental forces. The power of gravity between the celestial bodies, stars is highly effective to bind the galaxies and solar systems together. The power of gravity is observable easily on earth. Everything within the earth’s atmosphere is attracted towards surface because of high gravitational pull.

According to physics, Nothing can affect the gravity because-

  • It always attracts and never repels.
  • It is the only interaction that acts on all particles having mass, energy and/or momentum.
  • It cannot be absorbed, transformed, or shielded against.

Our present-day understanding of gravitation stems from Albert Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity of 1915


Birth of Light

After the Big Bang, the universe was like a hot soup of particles (i.e. protons, neutrons, and electrons). When the universe started cooling, the protons and neutrons began combining into ionised atoms of hydrogen (and eventually some helium). These ionised atoms of hydrogen and helium attracted electrons, turning them into neutral atoms – which allowed light to travel freely for the first time. Since this light was no longer scattering off free electrons. The universe was no longer opaque!(4)

The emergence of these first stars marks the end of the “Dark Ages” in Cosmic history.


Dark Matter

big bang science
Jacobus Kapteyn in 1922 gave the first theory regarding dark matter.

We have been taught in schools that everything in the universe is made up of matter which occupies space and has some mass. But that’s not all, scientists know some deep secrets of the universe. The reality is that universe is made up of both matter and dark matter. Shocked? You should be because dark matter is calculated to be around 85% of the total matter in the universe which is not visible to eyes. Dark matter neither interacts with anything in the universe.

According to Einstein theory of relativity, the gravitational force does not act directly between the bodies. It’s the bending of ‘space and time sheet’ which causes the celestial bodies to take orbital rotations.

It is the mass of our sun which bends the sheet in the centre allowing planets to take orbital paths. The planets like mercury which is near to the sun revolve faster than distant planets due to more bending of the sheet.

Astrophysicists calculate the mass in a galaxy on the basis of the speed of gas clouds in the outer edges of a galaxy. According to Einsteins theory, the bending of space-time sheet in case of galaxies is more in the centre, by default the velocity of gas clouds in the inner portions should be more than the outer clouds. But scientists observed that the velocity of outer clouds is same as of inner clouds. This means that the mass of the Galaxy increases with increasing distance from its centre. They calculated that there is more mass in the outer portions of a galaxy which was not visible. They called it the Dark Matter.


Dark Energy

Big bang science
Edwin Hubble found that the distance between the galaxies is increasing by measuring their redshifts. The far galaxies emitted more red frequencies than the nearer galaxies.

Dark energy is a hypothetical concept as it is undetectable by our present technology. Nothing much is known about it. But the calculations of the renowned scientists proves that the universe is not possible without the existence of dark energy.

You can imagine dark energy as the fluid which fills all the space of the universe. Everything originates in the field of dark energy. All of the matter(including galaxies with their own gravity and dark matter) can be imagined submerged in this grand ocean of space.

There is a possibility that our universe might collapse/ disappear or die in a black hole if there is the slightest change in the quantity of the dark energy. This was the reason, why Stephen Hawkings warned the CERN scientists while the experiment of Large Hadron Collider at Geneva. We will go that way later on. I will add the links here as the blog will be published.


Conclusion

It’s hard to explain the complete story of the universe in a single article, big bang science is already not well known. Nothingness created us and everything around us. The leftover of matter after the annihilation, the birth of light, the division of forces to systematically interact with the material world clearly shows that the universe created situations to bring forth life. The intelligence of our universe is unquestionable from the scientific perspective. Is this result of just an explosion or the divine creation of ‘nothing’? Facts and shreds of evidence are before you. Think again, read again because time has come to open your eyes and seek the reality. Science alone is not fit to reveal the reality.


Sources (The Big Bang Science)

1 “Antimatter – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.” 2011. 28 Apr. 2016 <read>
3 “Baron – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.” 2011. 29 Apr. 2016 <read>
4 “First Light & Reionization – NASA JWST – James Webb Space Telescope.” 2010. 28 Apr. 2016 <read>

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